What does Mb and Mt stand for Curved Beam (frame element) results?


What does Mb (bi-moment) stand for in the curved beam (frame element) results? Is Mt (twisting moment) the pure torsional moment?


Question1: Also, could you please also confirm that Mt (twisting moment) is the pure torsional moment?
Answer: Mt is St. Venant's torsion moment which generally refers to pure torsion moment.

Question2: Bi-moment for curved beam result?
Answer: Bi-moment in itself is not not measurable but it serves as convenient auxiliary in theory of warping torsion. It is moment in flanges times distance between flanges.

For better explanation, I have attached a document on warping effect.

Creation date: 6/4/2021 3:41 PM      Updated: 6/7/2023 6:51 AM
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